Alcohol Mughith Faisal

Introduction
Alcohol is a highly addictive beverage that has a strong effect on people who consume it. The more a person drinks the high the likelihood that the person’s mental status will be affected. Alcohol consumption can impair judgment resulting to the engagement in risky behavior. Moderate alcohol consumption, on the other hand, does not affect an individual’s thinking capacity and behavior. In short, the effects of alcohol vary depending on the quantity of alcohol consumed, the frequency of drinking, and the age of the drinker. Over consumption of alcohol can results to immediate consequences such as memory problems, slurred speech, and confusion, engagement in risky behaviors, increased risk of violence and increased risk of accidents. Long-term misuses of alcohol can also lead to alcohol use disorders such as alcohol addiction, and a mirage of diseases included liver cirrhosis and certain types of cancer. Teenagers and young adults are well aware of this risks, but it does not deter them from engaging in reckless drinking. The online survey strives to find out why people drink and how drinking affects their decision making and subsequently, the rest of their lives.

Methodology
The online survey focused on determining how alcohol affects the user’s decision and choices. The survey also focused on determining whether the participants engage in bad decisions and participate in unprotected sex when intoxicated. The online survey consisted of ten questions that comprise of general questions such as the participant’s gender and age bracket. The questions then become more personalized and focused on the drinking habits of the participant. For instance, the participant is asked when he or she began drinking and the frequency of his or her drinking habit. At the end of the survey, participants respond to whether he or she has ever made choices under the influence of alcohol that he or she has come to regret. The complete set of questions asked and the response results are provided in Appendix 1 below. In total, there were ten questions set for the participants.

Results
A total of 35 participants responded to the open survey questions on alcohol consumption and their influence on the choices and behavior. 31 participants responded from the web link while four responses were from social media.13 participants (37.14%) were female respondents while 22 participants (62.86%) were male. 87.71% of the respondent were between the ages of 18-24 while 14.29% were 25-34 years old. 80% of the respondents admitted having drunk alcohol before with only 20% admitting not to have taken alcohol. 12out of 12 participants (100%) admitted having begun taking alcohol between the ages of 18-24years. On the frequency of the consumption of alcohol, 37.14% of the participants admitted that they consume alcohol 2-4 times a week. 17.14% admitted to taking alcohol at least 2-4 times a month while 14.29% admitted to taking alcohol at least once a month. 8.57% take alcohol every day while 22.86% indicated that they do not take alcohol.

When asked why they began to take alcohol, 66.67% admitted that they succumbed to peer pressure, 16.67% began to take alcohol for fun while 8.33% began to take alcohol out of curiosity as well as to forget their problems. Questioned on their effort to try and stop drinking alcohol, 67.65% admitted having tried while 32.35% admitted having made no attempt to stop the habit. The respondents were also asked about their ability to control themselves while under the influence of alcohol. 1participant skipped the question, but 61.76% responded that they control themselves while 14.71% admitted that they cannot control themselves. 23.53% of the participants were unsure of whether they can control themselves. 52.94% admitted having engaged in unprotected sex while 47.06% denied having engaged in unprotected sex. 55.88% regretted the choices they made while under the influence while 44.12% did not regret their choices.

Findings/Analysis

The findings highlighted the serious situation of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. The habit of alcohol consumption begins at a very young age thus increasing the risk of over-dependence and alcoholism. 87.71% are at a critical age of their life (18-24), and the choices and decisions they make can affect their wellbeing in the future. The pressure to fits in is also a prevalent cause that drives young adults to begin taking alcohol. 66.67% take alcohol because of peer pressure. The finding is an indicator that most young adults take alcohol as a way of fitting in among their peers, friends, and colleagues. According to Boyles (2007), the presence of peers increases the risk of risk taking. An individual may be aware of the risks of indulging in alcohol consumption, but he may still engage in the behavior when surrounding by his or her peers. Boyle (2007) indicates that individuals may be educated on the risks of behavior, for example, alcohol consumption but may still be undeterred to engage in the practice when in the company of peers.

The results also reveal the increased risk of engaging in risky behavior due to alcohol consumption. For instance, the risk of engaging in unprotected sex is high when the individual is under the influence of alcohol. Alcohol clouds the drinker’s judgment thus affecting his or her ability to reason clearly. According to CDC (2013) report on youth risk behavior surveillance, many people engage in behavior that put them at risk of morbidity and mortality. Numerous behavior including taking alcohol and engaging in unprotected/risky sexual encounters have increased thus putting the youth’s health outcome at risk.

Recommendation/Future Actions

There is a need for intensive and continuous awareness of the risk and influence of alcohol consumption in public. The effects to eradicate alcohol misuse in the society must involve parents as well as the young adults. The young adults must continue to be made aware of the negative impact of risk habits such as excessive alcohol consumption. From the findings, it is apparent that most young adults are aware of the risk of alcohol consumption hence their efforts to stop the habit. Therefore, it is importance for intensive public awareness on cessation of alcohol to continue so that the young adults never assume that it is alright to misuse alcohol. Similarly, parents must be encouraged to play an active role in their children’s life. Regular monitoring will ensure that the parent or guardian is aware of her or his child whereabouts thus minimizing the chances of risky and irresponsible behavior. Communities can establish alternative pass time activities that ensure that young adults are engaged. The availability of plenty of ideal time increases the risk of engaging in habits such as excessive alcohol consumption. For instance, the provision of sports activities around learning institutions and the community provides young adults with alternative ways to pass their time.

Conclusion
It is apparent that young adults find themselves in a tight spot when it comes to making a decision such as not consuming alcohol. At one hand, they are faced with voluminous information n the risks involved with the misuse of alcohol among other drugs. On the other hand, they are faced with the desire to fit in by impressing their friends. Peer pressure pushes most young adults to engage in excessive alcohol intake irrespective of the knowledge of potential risks. There is a need for intensive awareness on the risk of excessive alcohol consumption. The young adults need to learn that excessive alcohol consumption does not help an individual fit it in a group, it does not help resolve problems and it is not a way of having fun.

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Dark Matter

Introduction
Dark matter is a composition of elements in the universe which are preserved in the form of primordial fluctuations in cosmological density. The existence of dark matter is associated with the formation of supersymmetry prediction of new families of particles which interact weakly with ordinary matter. The growth of dark matter is recorded to have started early that resulted in the formation of galaxies. Dark matter contributed to the provision of gravitational potential in which stable structure in the universe was formed. Dark matter enhanced the existence of galaxies, groups, as well as clusters. The existence of combining forces referred to as the dark energy combined different structures and expanded the space between bound particles that formed structures such as the Local Group of galaxies.

Discussion
Dark matter determines our existence as well as the future combination of elements. According to dark matter theory, a cosmic inflation has become the basis for the standard model of big bang cosmology called Lambda cold dark matter or Lambda-CDM (?CDM) (Colloquium on the Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation, 1998). Lambda-CDM is concerned with the formation and existence of cosmic microwave structure data as well as other cosmic rays which include; the distribution of galaxies, high concentration in abundance of hydrogen gas including deuterium, helium, as well as lithium. Dark matter as one of the cosmological density and occupies about 23% of cosmic density. It has the potential of having the dark energy of about that occupies 72%. The baryonic matter occupies up to only about 4.6% while the visible baryons occupy about 0.5% of the cosmic density (Colloquium on the Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation, 1998).

The Existence of Dark Matter
Initially, the infant universe was characterized by extremely hot, dense, homogeneous mixture of photons and matter. The composition of the universe was tightly coupled together as plasma. The initial characteristics and conditions of this early form of universe plasma are thought to be established long time ago during a period of rapid noncontrolled expansion referred to as inflation. The rapid expansions were contributed by high-density fluctuations within the primordial plasma (International Symposium on Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, He, & Ng, 2003). The effects were catalyzed by quantum fluctuations within the field of tightly held plasma material which drove the inflation. The high amplitude of the primordial gravitational potential that fluctuated uniformly on all spatial scales led to the formation of small perturbations as new forms of energy.

The small perturbations usually propagate via the plasma collision in the form of a sound wave. It produces under as well as overdensities in the plasma combined with a simultaneous change in density of matter and speed of radiation that influences fluctuation in pressure (International Symposium on Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, He, & Ng, 2003). However, CDM does not contribute towards sharing pressure induced during the oscillations. It usually acts upon as gravitational forces that either enhances or negates the acoustic patterns of the photons and baryons. The continuous pressure exerted results to initialization of physical conditions that contributes to expansion and rapid cooling of plasma (International Symposium on Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, He, & Ng, 2003). During the high pressure, the conditions reach a point where electrons, as well as baryons, are capable of gaining stability and recombining. As a result, the state leads to the formation of atoms, commonly in the form of neutral hydrogen. In the process photons finally, decouple from the baryons a condition that leads to the plasma becoming neutral. The formed perturbations cease from propagating as acoustic waves. The preserved and existing density pattern becomes cool and frozen. The cooled and frozen snapshot of the various density fluctuations get preserved within the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies others get embedded as an imprint of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) observable (International Symposium on Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, He, & Ng, 2003).

The resulting recombination is one associated with the production of large neutral universe characterized by unobservable fields of the electromagnetic spectrum. The period in which the named reactions occur is referred to as the era of dark ages. During the era, some reactions that occur includes CDM beginning gravitational collapse, especially in the overdense regions. Baryonic matter transforms to some gravitational forces that lead to collapsing of the CDM halos and influences the beginning of Cosmic Dawn (International Symposium on Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, He, & Ng, 2003). The radiations begin with the formation of initial radiation sources such as stars. Produced objects give a lot of radiation that causes other objects to re-ionize through the intergalactic medium. Most of the structures formed to continue to grow to merge other matters under the influence of gravitational pull. The result of the forming materials is a vast cosmic web of dark matter density. The radiating particles cause availability of abundant luminous galaxies that traces the statistics of different underlying matter density. Most of the assembled objects include clusters of galaxies that form the largest bound objects. The reorganization of dark matter results into galaxies that retain the BAO correlation length during the process of formation of CMB energy.With the increase in the dark matter, the universe continues to expand influencing the accumulation of the negative pressure which is associated with the cosmological constant. The constant is in the form of dark matter or dark energy in?CDM (International Symposium on Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, He, & Ng, 2003). The matter usually increases and dominates over opposing gravitational forces leading to the expansion of the universe.

Types of Dark Matter
The composition of the universe is usually dominated by the cosmic density of both dark energy and dark matter. What the most common physical nature of dark matter remains is yet to be discovered. There are two popular families of dark matter that try to explain about the dark matter particle. They include lightest supersymmetric partner particle also referred to as super-symmetric weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP). A WIMP is one of the weakly interacting dark matter components (Colloquium on the Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation, 1998). The basic idea behind WIMP particles is that billions of these black matter particles pass human hand within a second. They also pass through the Earth and everything on it. However, WIMPs interact weakly with other particles as well as ordinary matter. Due to their weak interactive reaction, they almost create their impacts entirely unnoticed.

It is a neutrino and is invisible while passing through a typical elementary particle detector. However, through some other properties of the other dark matter particles produced in association with the WIMP, it is possible to recognize their events and select them for analysis. Some of the most specific analysis has been done in models of supersymmetry.

The other particle is the cosmological axion. WIMPs and axions are the most common dark matter particles. Super-symmetry is among the standard models of particles that constitute energy that allows control of vacuum energy as well as used for renormalizing gravitational interactions. It plays a role that allows gravity to be combined with both the weak electronic components as well as strong interactions Super-symmetry dark matter makes it easy and possible for a grand unification of the weak electron materials and brings strong interactions that naturally explain the scaling of smaller particles in the universe. The forces of generated from the gravity lead to the grand unification of Planck scales that leads to solving the gauge hierarchy problem. The establishment of a connection between supersymmetry dark matters breaking with weak-electro symmetry leads to increase in mass that forms a range of about 100 to 1000 GeV (Colloquium on the Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation, 1998). The state leads to the formation of WIMP cosmological density that maintains balances in the universe. Many other particles including Axion have been indicated as possible dark matter candidates that also follow the principles of supersymmetry (Colloquium on the Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation, 1998).

Dark matter refers to a term that explains objects available in the universe in the form of the missing mass. It is a standard cosmological event of big bang model. Dark matter interacts with normal matter through the gravity. However, dark matter neither absorbs nor emits radiation and thus making it impossible to be seen. According to big bang cosmologists, they explain that about 25% of the universe is composed of dark matter. The major elements consist of non-standard particles which include neutrinos, axions also known as weakly interacting massive particles WIMPs. About 70% of the known universe is composed of models made up of more obscure dark energy components. The entire composition leaves a 5% of the universe composed of ordinary matter.

Dark Matter (DAMA) Experiment

A remarkable experiment referred to as Dark Matter (DAMA) is well known for using three styles of detectors to facilitate discovering of wimps. The experiment is designed in an exactly similar manner like experiments used in detecting and in the study neutrinos (Cerulli, et. al., 2017). However, DAMA is designed to look for a specific reaction. DAMA is designed to find the energy generated as a result of an interaction with a particular element at a particular angle.

The DAMA experiment has three phases which include processes, having two research and development (R&D) setups as well as one actual experiment that considers the results of the R&D. The basic idea behind DAMA experiment is that since the galaxy rotates at high speed of 232 km/s, the rotation enhances sweeping via the residual CDM material. The study involving the reaction of particles ensures the high possibility of using experiment illustrations to detect the WIMP contents of CDM possibly. The phases are as explained below.

Phase one:
The first phase uses Adhesive silicone CaF4 which is designed to look for a2? decay. The experiment is designed in that format to eliminate known leptons. The phase 1 experiment is set with the intention of determining signs of WIMP detection (Cerulli, et. al., 2017). When the expected results are successful, the second phase is designed as follows

Phase two:
The second phase makes use of isotope of xenon 129Xe; it is used to since it has a high sensitivity that detects R&D. Its superiority allows identifying of three WIMP particles which include photinos, higgsinos, and Majorana Neutrinos (Cerulli, et. al., 2017). After successful results are obtained through detection, the session opens for phase three which involves the actual experiment.

Phase three:
LIBRA – Large Sodium Iodine Bulk for Rare processes

Sodium Iodine (NaI) detectors experiment is set up after the two R&D phases. The results obtained should reveal that the experiment determines the presence of particles that clarify characteristics that qualify particles to be WIMP’s (Cerulli, et. al., 2017).

The DAMA project is a project carried to certainly determine the existence of some particles that resemble the requirements of wimps. The results obtained from DAMA experiment are revealed characteristics of particles such as the mirror symmetry which is a theory of particle physics. As indicated from researchers it is true that every particle of matter has a mirror particle. The experiment reveals that mirror matter particles consist of the sole of CDM (Cerulli, et. al., 2017).

LUX Experiment
The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) is a dark matter experiment, which is designed to operate underground beneath a mile of rock. It is located in Sanford Underground Research Facility in the Black Hills of South Dakota (Chapman, et al., 2013). The LUX experiment is designed to look for black matter referred to as weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). WIMP is considered as the leading theoretical candidate that consists of dark matter particle. The LUX detectors are composed of a third of a ton composed of cooled liquid xenon. It is usually surrounded by powerful sensors which are designed basically for detecting minute and a tiny flash of light (Chapman, et al., 2013). They also detect the electrical charges emitted incase a WIMP particle collides with a xenon atom within the reaction chamber or tank. The detectors are specifically located at Sanford Lab underground one mile of rock. It is usually found inside a 72,000-gallon tank, with a high-purity water tank. The configuration and setup help in shielding it from dangerous cosmic rays as well as effects of other radiation that can easily interfere with a dark matter signals. The scientist makes use of calibration techniques using neutrons as stand-ins for managing and controlling WIMPs particles (Chapman, et al., 2013). The effect is achieved through firing a beam of neutrons in the detectors. By achieving that scientists gain capability of carefully quantifying the process in which LUX detectors responds to the signals produced from a WIMP collision (Chapman, et al., 2013). Other forms of calibration techniques applied include injecting radioactive gasses inside the detecting chamber to help in distinguishing between signals produced during ambient radioactivity as well as potential dark matter signal.