Discussion question

Introduction
In various scientific inquiries, our aim is always to establish the causes of something. For example, we might want to establish the true causes of autism or causes of cancer or how the drug enables a patient to feel better and less pain. Also, we can be interested in knowing which cultural practices result in environmental problems in many other aspects. In such instances, we are testing the causal models. On the other hand, scientific studies also aim to establish the correlations between variables. Correlations aim at finding out the associations of variables. Variables are aspects that researchers measure which may differ from one observation to another, for example, behavior, weight, height, lifespan, income, grade-point average and fat intake. With the variables, we can assign a value to represent the variables.

Causation and correlation

We frequently experience instances of misuse between causation and correlation. For example in a British newspaper, it provides reports from a group of teenagers who were to give information about their behaviors. The survey aimed to establish if the parents of these teenagers were smokers. As a fact, the newspaper reported that children were exhibiting delinquent behaviors had parents who smoke. The results of this study seem to indicate correlations between two variables. However the headline of this printed newspaper is entitled, “”Parental smoking causes children to misbehave” Criticalthinking.org.uk, 2006). The professor in charge of the investigation mentions that cigarettes pack should have a warning b about the prominent health warnings and various social issues. However, this is a problematic assumption. First, the correlations there might be a reverse in that delinquent children make their parents have stress making them smoke.

Another example of a correlation that is assumed to be a cause is that children with bigger feet can better spell than those with smaller feet. The odd results of this study’s explanation are that those children with bigger feet are older and not quite related to being better in spelling. As children grow they develop big feet (Paulo, 2010).

Another example is that the countries in the south have high rates of divorces and lower rates of death. There is also the example that nations adding fluoride to their water experience a high level of cancer unlike those which do not. Though there are studies that have come to such findings, these responses would make more sense if the researchers would acknowledge the differences between causation and correlations (Murch, et al., 2004).

The 1998 study kindles the opposition to vaccine firestorm that provides suggestions that autism is as a result of vaccines have no support from the General Medical Council. The participants were biased, and it made the researcher commit various ethical breaches in his work. Andrew Wakefield‘s research paper no longer exists. The Researcher analyzed the health of 12 children showing signs of colon inflammation and autism shortly after receiving the MMR vaccinations (Wakefield, et al., 1998). T

hough this study raises alarms about autism and vaccine, a closer examination of this paper indicate a range of warning signs.. The researchers in their conclusion state flatly that, we did not find a close association between mumps, measles, and the syndrome and rubella vaccine. The researcher mentions that they have managed to identify that chronic enterocolitis among children could relate to neuropsychiatric dysfunction. Additionally, they state that the onset of symptoms was after, rubella, mumps and measles immunization. And that further examination should be done in studying the symptoms and its possible relation to the vaccine). This is a tame language and only studying 12 participants makes the study to lack credibility and validity (Stehr-Green, Tull, & Simpson, 2003). Up to date, no study has established the connection between autism and MMR shots. The evidence of a-pick-and-choose recruitment method is bias leading to a discredit of its conclusion (DeStefano, 2007).

Correlation provides a statistical measure that describes the direction and size of the relationship between one or two variables. However, the correlation between variables does not automatically mean a change in one of the variables as being the reason for the change in other variables values. Causation, however, means that one event leads to the occurrence of another event which means that there is a causal relationship in two variables (The Lancet, 2010). For example, smoking has a correlation to alcoholism, but it is not the main cause of alcoholism. Rather smoking causes a higher risk of lung cancer development.

Therefore incorrectly linking causation and correlation principles will lead to posthoc reasoning in which the incorrect assumptions generations are the incorrect links of two effects. The principles of causation and correlations are crucial to all researchers and scientists. It is also important for other not -scientists who study marketing, media and politics. Knowing these principles helps to promote honest evaluation and greater understanding to individuals at all ages (Science Daily, 2013).

Good effect of a video game

PURPOSE
Computerization in the people’s lives has become a usual thing for as long as computers have been in existence (Anderson, 2004). However, computers have brought with them problems along with their benefits. Although the computer is an instrument with which one can earn a living, the matter is in the way people use it. Additionally, it concerns video games, especially because of the fascinate children and teenagers. Video games have been part of people’s lives as they grow up. Video games started times back when Atari created the first gaming console which was a simple game of tennis. Now the market is filled with various types of video games. Video games have become the second nature of the children in the modern world and are comfortable playing them. As much as children have made video games their second nature, they have many bad and good effects.

The reason why this topic has been selected is that video games have both negative and positive effects. Additionally, video games pose a serious problem in various parts of the world and deserve more attention. There is no place in the world in the world including the United States that children and adult do not play video games every day. Although many players easily limit their play of the video game in a way that does not interfere with their lives, there are others who have gone on to develop an addiction to the playing of the video games and results in suffering detrimental effects. The reason why this topic interests me is although video games are frowned upon by many parents whose children have been addicted to it there is a good side of it. Video games have good effects. Furthermore, video games have the capability of changing one’s brain’s physical structure similar to the way learning to read, playing guitar, or navigating using a map does according to Sherry (2001).

I think from this research I am going to find the negative and positive effects of video games. I am going to find out ways in which video games is similar to exercise and the way it builds muscles. Disregarding the negative effects, I am going to find how the powerful combination of the brain concentration and rewarding surges of the neurotransmitters such as dopamine strengthens neural circuits thus building the brain. Additionally, I will find the extent to which video games “melt the brains of the players” and whether this assertion is true. The issues around video games are important (Egenfeldt-Nielsen et al., 2016).

The issues surrounding video games are important because parents are growing anxious about their children spending too much time playing a video game. Parents believe that video games are endangered a child’s state of mind and develop aggressiveness, narrow their range of interest, and impoverish their emotional sphere. While this might be true, there is a good side of video games. I am going to be taking the meaningful angle with my projects this semester. This means that I will bring to the whole learning about the topic at hand (Greitemeyer & Osswald, 2010).

PROBLEMS TO BE INVESTIGATED
Do video games have any positive impacts?
What are the main issues associated with the playing of video games?
Is the concern of the adverse impacts linked to video games on children founded on facts?
Why is the issue of the effect of video games becoming important?
What does literature say about the good effect of video games?
What are the specific good effects of video games?
What are the financial and social effects of video games?
The key issue in this research is investigating the good effects of playing video games. This is beside the fact that video games have both negative and positive effects and the fact the issue has become important with more children and teenagers increasingly becoming addicted to video games.

METHODS OF RESEARCH
While investigating the good effects of video games, I will use case study. Good effects of video games are a real-life situation. Therefore, a case study is a good research methodology to study the situation with all its complexities thus discovering the factors which will contribute to the outcomes of the research. The case study will be used to study this situation (Swanborn, 2010) comprehensively. The reason for choosing case study as the methodology in this research is because it will be impossible to generalize from the findings from the case study. However, through a case study, I will be able to easily test whether and how theories and scientific models work in the real world (Hancock & Algozzine, 2015). Conducting case studies will give me a chance of drawing from my knowledge and research. Additionally, I will easily practice my skills of analysis and reasoning after which I will draw conclusions on the good effects of video games. I will draw case study from real life, and so it might be complex according to Easton (2010). Additionally, different readers of the case study might draw different conclusions from the case which is expected.

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