Dark Matter

Dark matter is a composition of elements in the universe which are preserved in the form of primordial fluctuations in cosmological density. The existence of dark matter is associated with the formation of supersymmetry prediction of new families of particles which interact weakly with ordinary matter. The growth of dark matter is recorded to have started early that resulted in the formation of galaxies. Dark matter contributed to the provision of gravitational potential in which stable structure in the universe was formed. Dark matter enhanced the existence of galaxies, groups, as well as clusters. The existence of combining forces referred to as the dark energy combined different structures and expanded the space between bound particles that formed structures such as the Local Group of galaxies.

Dark matter determines our existence as well as the future combination of elements. According to dark matter theory, a cosmic inflation has become the basis for the standard model of big bang cosmology called Lambda cold dark matter or Lambda-CDM (?CDM) (Colloquium on the Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation, 1998). Lambda-CDM is concerned with the formation and existence of cosmic microwave structure data as well as other cosmic rays which include; the distribution of galaxies, high concentration in abundance of hydrogen gas including deuterium, helium, as well as lithium. Dark matter as one of the cosmological density and occupies about 23% of cosmic density. It has the potential of having the dark energy of about that occupies 72%. The baryonic matter occupies up to only about 4.6% while the visible baryons occupy about 0.5% of the cosmic density (Colloquium on the Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation, 1998).

The Existence of Dark Matter
Initially, the infant universe was characterized by extremely hot, dense, homogeneous mixture of photons and matter. The composition of the universe was tightly coupled together as plasma. The initial characteristics and conditions of this early form of universe plasma are thought to be established long time ago during a period of rapid noncontrolled expansion referred to as inflation. The rapid expansions were contributed by high-density fluctuations within the primordial plasma (International Symposium on Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, He, & Ng, 2003). The effects were catalyzed by quantum fluctuations within the field of tightly held plasma material which drove the inflation. The high amplitude of the primordial gravitational potential that fluctuated uniformly on all spatial scales led to the formation of small perturbations as new forms of energy.

The small perturbations usually propagate via the plasma collision in the form of a sound wave. It produces under as well as overdensities in the plasma combined with a simultaneous change in density of matter and speed of radiation that influences fluctuation in pressure (International Symposium on Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, He, & Ng, 2003). However, CDM does not contribute towards sharing pressure induced during the oscillations. It usually acts upon as gravitational forces that either enhances or negates the acoustic patterns of the photons and baryons. The continuous pressure exerted results to initialization of physical conditions that contributes to expansion and rapid cooling of plasma (International Symposium on Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, He, & Ng, 2003). During the high pressure, the conditions reach a point where electrons, as well as baryons, are capable of gaining stability and recombining. As a result, the state leads to the formation of atoms, commonly in the form of neutral hydrogen. In the process photons finally, decouple from the baryons a condition that leads to the plasma becoming neutral. The formed perturbations cease from propagating as acoustic waves. The preserved and existing density pattern becomes cool and frozen. The cooled and frozen snapshot of the various density fluctuations get preserved within the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies others get embedded as an imprint of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) observable (International Symposium on Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, He, & Ng, 2003).

The resulting recombination is one associated with the production of large neutral universe characterized by unobservable fields of the electromagnetic spectrum. The period in which the named reactions occur is referred to as the era of dark ages. During the era, some reactions that occur includes CDM beginning gravitational collapse, especially in the overdense regions. Baryonic matter transforms to some gravitational forces that lead to collapsing of the CDM halos and influences the beginning of Cosmic Dawn (International Symposium on Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, He, & Ng, 2003). The radiations begin with the formation of initial radiation sources such as stars. Produced objects give a lot of radiation that causes other objects to re-ionize through the intergalactic medium. Most of the structures formed to continue to grow to merge other matters under the influence of gravitational pull. The result of the forming materials is a vast cosmic web of dark matter density. The radiating particles cause availability of abundant luminous galaxies that traces the statistics of different underlying matter density. Most of the assembled objects include clusters of galaxies that form the largest bound objects. The reorganization of dark matter results into galaxies that retain the BAO correlation length during the process of formation of CMB energy.With the increase in the dark matter, the universe continues to expand influencing the accumulation of the negative pressure which is associated with the cosmological constant. The constant is in the form of dark matter or dark energy in?CDM (International Symposium on Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, He, & Ng, 2003). The matter usually increases and dominates over opposing gravitational forces leading to the expansion of the universe.

Types of Dark Matter
The composition of the universe is usually dominated by the cosmic density of both dark energy and dark matter. What the most common physical nature of dark matter remains is yet to be discovered. There are two popular families of dark matter that try to explain about the dark matter particle. They include lightest supersymmetric partner particle also referred to as super-symmetric weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP). A WIMP is one of the weakly interacting dark matter components (Colloquium on the Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation, 1998). The basic idea behind WIMP particles is that billions of these black matter particles pass human hand within a second. They also pass through the Earth and everything on it. However, WIMPs interact weakly with other particles as well as ordinary matter. Due to their weak interactive reaction, they almost create their impacts entirely unnoticed.

It is a neutrino and is invisible while passing through a typical elementary particle detector. However, through some other properties of the other dark matter particles produced in association with the WIMP, it is possible to recognize their events and select them for analysis. Some of the most specific analysis has been done in models of supersymmetry.

The other particle is the cosmological axion. WIMPs and axions are the most common dark matter particles. Super-symmetry is among the standard models of particles that constitute energy that allows control of vacuum energy as well as used for renormalizing gravitational interactions. It plays a role that allows gravity to be combined with both the weak electronic components as well as strong interactions Super-symmetry dark matter makes it easy and possible for a grand unification of the weak electron materials and brings strong interactions that naturally explain the scaling of smaller particles in the universe. The forces of generated from the gravity lead to the grand unification of Planck scales that leads to solving the gauge hierarchy problem. The establishment of a connection between supersymmetry dark matters breaking with weak-electro symmetry leads to increase in mass that forms a range of about 100 to 1000 GeV (Colloquium on the Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation, 1998). The state leads to the formation of WIMP cosmological density that maintains balances in the universe. Many other particles including Axion have been indicated as possible dark matter candidates that also follow the principles of supersymmetry (Colloquium on the Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation, 1998).

Dark matter refers to a term that explains objects available in the universe in the form of the missing mass. It is a standard cosmological event of big bang model. Dark matter interacts with normal matter through the gravity. However, dark matter neither absorbs nor emits radiation and thus making it impossible to be seen. According to big bang cosmologists, they explain that about 25% of the universe is composed of dark matter. The major elements consist of non-standard particles which include neutrinos, axions also known as weakly interacting massive particles WIMPs. About 70% of the known universe is composed of models made up of more obscure dark energy components. The entire composition leaves a 5% of the universe composed of ordinary matter.

Dark Matter (DAMA) Experiment

A remarkable experiment referred to as Dark Matter (DAMA) is well known for using three styles of detectors to facilitate discovering of wimps. The experiment is designed in an exactly similar manner like experiments used in detecting and in the study neutrinos (Cerulli, et. al., 2017). However, DAMA is designed to look for a specific reaction. DAMA is designed to find the energy generated as a result of an interaction with a particular element at a particular angle.

The DAMA experiment has three phases which include processes, having two research and development (R&D) setups as well as one actual experiment that considers the results of the R&D. The basic idea behind DAMA experiment is that since the galaxy rotates at high speed of 232 km/s, the rotation enhances sweeping via the residual CDM material. The study involving the reaction of particles ensures the high possibility of using experiment illustrations to detect the WIMP contents of CDM possibly. The phases are as explained below.

Phase one:
The first phase uses Adhesive silicone CaF4 which is designed to look for a2? decay. The experiment is designed in that format to eliminate known leptons. The phase 1 experiment is set with the intention of determining signs of WIMP detection (Cerulli, et. al., 2017). When the expected results are successful, the second phase is designed as follows

Phase two:
The second phase makes use of isotope of xenon 129Xe; it is used to since it has a high sensitivity that detects R&D. Its superiority allows identifying of three WIMP particles which include photinos, higgsinos, and Majorana Neutrinos (Cerulli, et. al., 2017). After successful results are obtained through detection, the session opens for phase three which involves the actual experiment.

Phase three:
LIBRA – Large Sodium Iodine Bulk for Rare processes

Sodium Iodine (NaI) detectors experiment is set up after the two R&D phases. The results obtained should reveal that the experiment determines the presence of particles that clarify characteristics that qualify particles to be WIMP’s (Cerulli, et. al., 2017).

The DAMA project is a project carried to certainly determine the existence of some particles that resemble the requirements of wimps. The results obtained from DAMA experiment are revealed characteristics of particles such as the mirror symmetry which is a theory of particle physics. As indicated from researchers it is true that every particle of matter has a mirror particle. The experiment reveals that mirror matter particles consist of the sole of CDM (Cerulli, et. al., 2017).

LUX Experiment
The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) is a dark matter experiment, which is designed to operate underground beneath a mile of rock. It is located in Sanford Underground Research Facility in the Black Hills of South Dakota (Chapman, et al., 2013). The LUX experiment is designed to look for black matter referred to as weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). WIMP is considered as the leading theoretical candidate that consists of dark matter particle. The LUX detectors are composed of a third of a ton composed of cooled liquid xenon. It is usually surrounded by powerful sensors which are designed basically for detecting minute and a tiny flash of light (Chapman, et al., 2013). They also detect the electrical charges emitted incase a WIMP particle collides with a xenon atom within the reaction chamber or tank. The detectors are specifically located at Sanford Lab underground one mile of rock. It is usually found inside a 72,000-gallon tank, with a high-purity water tank. The configuration and setup help in shielding it from dangerous cosmic rays as well as effects of other radiation that can easily interfere with a dark matter signals. The scientist makes use of calibration techniques using neutrons as stand-ins for managing and controlling WIMPs particles (Chapman, et al., 2013). The effect is achieved through firing a beam of neutrons in the detectors. By achieving that scientists gain capability of carefully quantifying the process in which LUX detectors responds to the signals produced from a WIMP collision (Chapman, et al., 2013). Other forms of calibration techniques applied include injecting radioactive gasses inside the detecting chamber to help in distinguishing between signals produced during ambient radioactivity as well as potential dark matter signal.

Developing, Administering And Protecting Today’s Computer Networks

One of Canada’s leading career colleges, Evergreen College, is now offering two new post-graduate diploma programs: The Network Systems Engineer Post-Graduate Diploma Program and the Cyber Security and Cloud Computing Post-Graduate Diploma Program. The programs are designed for people who want to take their career in IT that one step further.

The 47-week long Network Systems Engineer Post-Graduate Diploma Program covers the advanced skills needed to successfully install and manage computer networks, exchange servers or even design and integrate networks.

Free Palestine
Students learn about local area networks (LANs) and wide area networks (WANs) as well as web server management. They learn to effectively use advanced software such as Linux, VMWare, web management systems and a variety of different mail servers.

Network systems engineers need to be able to analyze the communication needs of a business, create a plan and present it to senior members of staff and execute that plan effectively. They also need to be up to date with the latest technology and what will suit a particular building or company.

Participants leave prepared to make computer infrastructures for businesses across Canada and the world. They also leave with a diploma that’s certified by CISCO, Microsoft and compTIA.

The 97-week Cyber Security and Cloud Computing Post-Graduate Diploma Program offers students the chance to develop their skills in cyber security so they can confidently monitor, spot weaknesses and vulnerabilities and maintain the integrity of an organizations’s network.

As part of this course, students learn the fundamentals of the Linux operating system, virtual networks Hyper V and VMWare, CISCO Networking and Security and SQL database concepts. Part of programme also involves completing the Certified Ethical Hacker training module accredited by the EC Council.

Cloud computing specialists with an excellent knowledge of security are in demand in today’s job market. Cloud computing is the way of the future for many businesses when it comes to way they manage files or servers. Many companies are moving their physical information onto the cloud and using virtual environments. A cloud computing specialist organizes and monitors this transition and must be able to weigh the risks and benefits of any new technology for the good of the company.

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As with all of Evergreen College’s courses, students complete an internship in the job of their choosing. This gives students a valuable chance to take their learning further and apply what they’ve learned in the classroom in a practical sense. Evergreen College’s experienced internship co-ordinator, who has more than 10 years of experience, places students into internships that will lead them to success in their career.

What’s more, Evergreen College offers job finding workshops to all its students, to really cement the transition from graduate study to the workplace.

Both courses are available to students who have already completed a programme in Information Technology. For more information, contact the friendly and helpful Evergreen College staff.

Orientation and Training

Iteration 1: Orientation and Training
Student Name


My internship program at Kronsys Inc was purposely for acquiring the skills and experience of being an expert as an SQL programmer and developer. I began my program with the orientation to the company and training of the SQL Webpage development process aspects. The actions of the process were developed through the following several tires of primarily familiarizing me to the company SQL Web Application developers along with the overall Kronsys Inc management. The second division of the orientation and training process was the familiarization with the aspects of SQL Webpage development process. In this case, I had to develop a detailed program of reviewing the tutorials, guidebooks, and journals in preparation for the training. The training preparation is the basis for establishing the ground of easily capturing and understanding what entails in project development and overall SQL Webpage development process.

To facilitate the individual training preparations I made some consultations to the company SQL web Application Developer professional for the guidance on how I was to go about the process. The third tier of the program was to hold a meeting with the project manager and the SQL and PL/SQL administrators for the understanding of the skills desirable for an SQL Programmer and Web Application developer. The last tier was the training on the different aspects of SQL Webpage development process along with the best understanding of different phases of project development life cycle. The internship program was scheduled to take the duration of two weeks. The activities within the orientation and training phase of the project will be undertaken in a sequential manner to ensure that the deliverables are much helpful to my future career of being an SQL programmer and Web developer expert.

As a new attachee within the Kronsys Inc, I made pre-visit to the company before the reporting day to have the easy understating of the physical organization and location of the different departments of the organization. I made a visit as an ordinary guest and got to have the knowledge of the terrain of the company. On reporting, I begun with the introduction to the company SQL Web Application developing staff. The process was essential for the creation of the relationship that will allow the teamwork during my overall activities that I undertook at the company. The familiarization process was done by the movement from one office to the other. The knowing of each other gave me the courage now to begin on the program by developing a schedule of how I was to understand the aspects of SQL Web Application development process. I collected the relevant materials relating to the concept. The materials I majored in were the journals and the textbooks alongside the online studying. This was the preparation for the training of the SQL Web Application development concepts.

I studied the concepts under the guidance of the SQL Web Application development professional whom I made regular consultations. The consultation was to provide the way forward in the areas that I was too special and take much focus. The actions were the roots of understanding the principles of SQL Web Application development process during the training. After the individual training, I held a meeting that was described as the meeting of company governing and operational policies principles and procedures. The project manager defined and elaborated the governance of the company to secure the right direction for me. The following actions were holding meetings as the project manager takes me through the training of the SQL Web Application development process and overall project development process phases.

Orientation carries its weight when it comes to new staffs within an organization. I deliberately made the company pre-visit because I wanted to take the shortest time possible for the orientation program. The pre-visit gave me the understanding of the strategic company organization. The design and location of the company were done professional since it is organized just by the mode of viewing. Orientation creates a motive of working as a team, in all cases teamwork has been the foundation of a company maintain productivity and improving on the same. At the same time, the quality of the products and services gets to grow as the employees work as a team (Mattson, 2015). The Kronsys Inc employees were welcoming, and they showed me the hospitality that I have never had before. They were all willing to work with and give the directions in all activities I was to perform. It was encouraging at that point.

As preparation mechanism to the training that I was to undergo before the other related activities, I took a step of familiarizing myself with the concepts of SQL Web Application development process. The materials opened my mind, and I captured the necessary information about the SQL Web Application development process and project development process phases. This knowledge got my training program successful as I stood to understand the ideas. The focus of the project manager was about the agile software development technology that we described as the technique that he does always apply in developing and implementing his projects. At that time, I was able to have an understanding of the skills that an SQL programmer and developer must possess. Some of the skills that I noted as the critical included the knowledge in Microsoft SQL server side developing that include the SSIS, SSRS, and SSMS. Others were the T-SQL stored procedures and the triggers, administrative database experience, and the.NET development experience (Conte & Cravitz, 2000).

Descriptively, orientation process can only be enjoyed if the place of work is conducive in any case. The orientation program was done accordingly though there was an assumption that I know the location of some of the offices, meeting places and other relevant places. This came in mind that indeed it was a great idea to make pre-visit to the Company as it provided direction to what I was expected to undertake. The idea made the orientation process successful that I was taking to imagine (Arthur, 2012). The management of any project is under the leadership of project managers, and the project manager stands to make sure that all the personnel he applies in the project are productive. The principle was a necessity that I was too through training that indeed provided the clear understanding of the SQL Web Application development process concepts and an overall project development process phases. The training as well was successful by the fact that I had done through pre-training preparation of consulting about what is expected as an SQL programmer and developer.

At this point, I had acquired the necessary and required knowledge that I was to apply to the remaining part of the program. To have the practical workings, I had to acquire an SQL developer application that I was to apply in creating the database objects. Therefore, there was the necessity of installing the SQL developer.