Oracle vs sql server

Introduction
Any enterprise evaluating a database management system solution for their data should also evaluate the systems regarding their management of data. The capabilities of the servers to properly manage data is the essence of having them in organizations since data is one of the most critical assets in any business whereby the success of any organization depends on how well it can use its data to make business decisions. The data needs to be available and its integrity and confidentiality preserved. If the data of organizations is not available or not protected, the enterprises are likely to lose millions of dollars due to unplanned downtime and negative publicity. Having good data management in organizations is critical to ensuring business success in today’s economy. The document offers a detailed comparative assessment of the two most popular servers, that is, Oracle and SQL Servers in light of data management.

Overview of Data Management in Oracle vs. SQL Server

One of the greatest challenges in the design of high availability information technology (IT) infrastructure is addressing the issues of data management. Data management, when it is done properly can reduce downtime that many organizations always face (Bassil, 2012). The IT companies should consider the potential causes of both planned and unplanned downtime when they are designing their IT infrastructure. We know that a server does play a dispensable role in managing the data so that it is always available and in the form I which it was saved. That helps in the continuity of business operations because they highly depend on that data. Data failures in organizations can result from the human errors, data corruptions or disasters, a, so it is the responsibility of a database management system to make sure that it includes features that can highly manage the data so that it is not negatively impacted by those events (Oracle Corporation, 2013).

While data failures are not frequent, their adverse effects on the business operations are very significant because it results in high costs of downtime. The database management system used, whether Oracle or SQL Server should allow for the maintenance activities to take place transparently, and that causes no or minimal interruptions to the normal business orations. The Oracle database comes with a plethora of capabilities integrated to ensure that organizations can minimize data failures as much as possible so that they do not adversely impact their businesses (Callan et al., 2010). For instance, the Oracle Multitenant is a new option in Oracle that delivers a groundbreaking technology useful in database consolidation as well as cloud computing. It also makes extreme high data and system availability a fundamental requirement wherever database consideration ahs application to the business critical applications.

The Microsoft Corporation introduced the Always On solution in their SQL Server for the purpose of addressing the issue of high availability and disaster recovery requirements. The major features that are inclusive in SQL Server include the always on failover to address the instance failovers and the AlwaysOn Availability Group to address the failover of a set of databases (Bassil, 2012). Although the SQL Server introduced these new capabilities to better manage data, it cannot match the breadth and depth of the data management capabilities found in Oracle (Oracle Corporation, 2013). The SQL Server continues to lag behind regarding data availability and for that reason, the Oracle database has application in many companies that require high data management and system availability. There are also many differentiators as explained below regarding how data management takes place in Oracle and SQL Server. Note that the SQL Server referred to here is the SQL Server 2012 whereas the Oracle database referred is the Oracle 12c EE (Enterprise Edition).

The Oracle database incorporates an inbuilt database failure detection, repair, and analysis whereas the SQL Server lacks this feature (Oracle Corporation, 2013). In the light of this matter, Oracle includes a fast-start fault recovery functionality that controls the instant recovery. The feature helps in the reduction of the required time for cache recovery as well as recovery bounded by limiting the dirty buffers and redo records that are regenerated between the most recent record and the last checkpoint. The fast-start checkpointing in Oracle eliminates the bulk writes as well as the resultant I/O spikes that do occur in the case of conventional checkpointing (Callan et al., 2010). Unlike in SQL where the database is not open for applications to access only after the undo or rollback phases, the Oracle database is accessible by applications without the need to wait for the completion of rollback of undoing phases (Kumar, 2007). In the latter, in case, the user process encounters a crashed transaction that locks a row, what the database does is that it rolls back that row.

Whereas the SQL Server stores the undo data in the log files, the Oracle database stores similar data in the database, making the recovery process is very fast in Oracle than in SQL (Callan et al., 2010). The SQL Server has to carry out expensive sequential scanning of the log files, hence increasing the mean time to recover from a data failure. Also, in Oracle, there is an incremental backup strategy while SQL server supports partials backup strategy. Oracle also incorporates a proactive disk health checks using an automatic corruption repair while the SQL Server does not have such a feature (Oracle Corporation, 2013). The data manager in Oracle does not have to check manually for the health of the disks because of that automatic feature. That simplifies the work of managing the data in Oracle as compared to the same tasks in SQL Server where there have to be manual disk health checks.

The standby apply progress in the Oracle databases does not have any performance impact on the primary database or data protection whereas in SQL Server it does have an impact (Callan et al., 2010). However, in Oracle, there are silent corruptions that can be detected as a result of software/hardware faults at the standby and the primary database; such defaults are not detectable in SQL Server. Oracle can quickly recover from logical corruptions and the human errors while in Oracle, it takes a long time to recover (Bassil, 2012). That is because SQL Server puts much responsibility on the hands of the database manager whereas the Oracle database comprises of features that make the recovery automatically. The Oracle database includes the integrated and automatic database failover that guarantees a zero data loss as well as a no split-brain (Kumar, 2007). That feature is lacking in SQL server, thus making it vulnerable to data loss.

The SQL Server’s AlwaysOn feature is a failover cluster instance running in a failover cluster that comprises of multiple failover clustering nodes for Windows. That offers a high availability via redundancy especially at the instance level (Kumar, 2007). That can also be useful in providing remote disaster recovery using multi-subnet failover cluster instance. It allows the hosting of an availability replica by either a failover clustering instance or a standalone instance of the server. That means the database manager can use the failover clustering instance for local instance-level high availability as well as the Availability Groups to offer database level disaster recovery. That feature may give an impression that it is similar to Oracle’s data guard and real application clusters. While the SQL Server’s failover clustering instances and the secondary nodes are all passive: are offline and do not start the SQL Server instances in a steady-state, the Oracle data guard and the real application clusters do start their respective database instances in a steady-state mode and are always online (Kumar, 2007). That is useful in data management at all times.

The USMLE Pathway program in hyderabad

The USMLE Pathway program is a structured pathway designed to guide medical students and graduates through the process of applying for the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) and ultimately obtaining a medical license to practice in the United States. Here is a step-by-step guide to the USMLE Pathway program:

1. Eligibility Assessment:
– Determine your eligibility to take the USMLE exams based on your medical school status and educational background.
– Make sure you meet the requirements set by the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG) if you are a foreign medical graduate.

2. ECFMG Certification:
– Apply for ECFMG certification, which is a prerequisite for taking the USMLE exams.
– Submit necessary documents and verification of your medical education credentials to ECFMG.

3. USMLE Exam Registration:
– Register for the USMLE Step 1, Step 2 CK (Clinical Knowledge), and Step 2 CS (Clinical Skills) exams through the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) or the ECFMG, depending on your eligibility.

4. Exam Preparation:
– Utilize study resources such as review books, question banks, and practice exams to prepare for the USMLE exams.
– Develop a study schedule and set realistic goals for each exam.

5. Exam Administration:
– Take the USMLE Step 1, Step 2 CK, and Step 2 CS exams at designated testing centers on the scheduled dates.
– Follow all exam policies and procedures to ensure a smooth testing experience.

6. Graduation and Residency Application:
– Complete medical school requirements and obtain your medical degree.
– Begin the residency application process by applying to residency programs through the Electronic Residency Application Service (ERAS).

7. USMLE Step 3:
– Register for the USMLE Step 3 exam after completing the first year of postgraduate training (PGY-1) in a residency program.
– Prepare for the Step 3 exam while gaining clinical experience during residency training.

8. Residency Match:
– Participate in the National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) Match to secure a residency position in your desired specialty.
– Rank residency programs based on your preferences and participate in the matching process.

9. Medical Licensure:
– Obtain a full medical license to practice in the United States after completing residency training and fulfilling all state licensing requirements.
– Apply for medical licensure through the state medical board where you plan to practice.

10. Continuing Medical Education (CME):
– Stay current with medical knowledge and practice by engaging in continuing medical education activities and meeting CME requirements for license renewal.
– Maintain professionalism and commitment to lifelong learning in the field of medicine.

By following these steps in the USMLE Pathway program, medical students and graduates can navigate the process of becoming licensed physicians in the United States successfully.

Social Institution Paper

Divorce
Problem Statement
Divorce in families can get explained as the termination of marriage for reasons that vary with the wedding. Many communities never support divorcing because it gets viewed as disorganization of the society. The contemporary society witnesses many cases of this social vice even when the society condones it. Divorce in families with children presents a lot of challenges to children. Therefore, this topic is imperative in promoting the demand for ordinary social life and full parenting to children.

Literature Review
Causes of Divorce in Families
Marital infidelity, as well as unfaithful that is persistent, contributes to marriage termination. Violence, as well as physical abuse among couples, can also lead to marriage separation (Emery, 1999). Marriages with constant abuse and wife battering are dangerous to couples, and this can attract and dictated the dissolution of the wedding.

Mental diseases in the marriage characterized by intense psychiatric conditions pose many risks to partners and children. In case the disorder is beyond control, the marriage can get dissolved for the security of the healthy ones. The strong personality causes harmful effects to other partner and children (Emery, 1999).

Divorce can be conventionally accepted in the society if a couple uses hard drugs that pose a security risk to the partner.drugs like bhang can lead to violence as well as risky behavior that can lead to assault and even raping children. Use of drugs promotes mistreatment of family members. Issues of controlling partners in marriage also factor divorce. This issue encompasses efforts to manage finances and spousal peers by use of force and disrespect can also lead to separation (Emery, 1999). Inability to work together concerning couple earnings tears marriages apart. Many learned ladies assert that the money they earn belongs to them while those made by the husband are for the whole family. Such marriage conditions promote divorce.

Impacts of Divorce on Children
Children are usually the primary recipients of negative effects of divorce. The lives often change negatively in the upbringing (Emery, 1999). Though most are usually young and unable to comprehend the effects, the later life usually presents the challenges didn’t. Children from divorced families usually get their academic performance negatively affected. The psychological pain from their parent conditions makes it difficult for them to concentrate on studies (Bright, Dignam & Kendrick, et al.). These children also lack full parental supervision that is critical in child development. Children can experience dropped standard of living when left with the economically unstable parent. Divorced children are also vulnerable to dropping out of school and engaging in deviance behavior. Emotional trauma from lacking full loving presence also haunts children from divorced families.

Divorce Effects on Spouses
The social status of divorced individuals drops in many societies especially those that view divorce as irresponsibility as well as shame (Bright, Dignam & Kendrick, et al.). Divorce also presents adverse effects among couples. Emotional, as well as psychological pain from the divorce, can easily lead to heart attacks. Other divorced couples end up in drug abuse in search of comfort from negative divorce experiences. Children also end up hating the parent who they associate with the problem. Children end up forming alliances with parents they stay with and hates the other parent. Living standards also drops on some couples, especially if living depended greatly on combined efforts. This situation is characterized by the inability to meet basic needs (Bright, Dignam & Kendrick, et al.). Peers intimidations emanating from divorce is also a problem facing divorced individuals. This situation involves getting love at and even rejections. The effect of such situation if escalates lead to emotional pain. Doubling of responsibility is also an effect whereby the divorced need to adjust to handle the responsibilities that were done by the partner.

Conflict Theory in Divorce
Conflict theory asserts that people strains in the effort to reconcile the conflicting while living. Conflict theory similarly characterizes the divorce situation. Divorce proceedings usually reflect the conflict theory situations. Couples negotiate and discuss allocation of assets among them. On the other hand, divorce presents aggressiveness and use of appeasement of coercing one another. Divorce takes the four steps of conflict theory (Bartos & Wehr, 2002). These four stages are; Prior Conditions phase that presents issues that dictate divorce. The conflicting issues are usually infidelity, misuse of finances, violence and inability to give up uncombined views in the marriage. The awareness or frustrations stage is the second one, and it presents dissatisfactions and stress among couples (Bartos & Wehr, 2002).

The Intense conflict is the third phase that shows complete misunderstanding among married couples. The stage is also the Accommodation stage characterized with couples trying to solve their conflicts. The scene gives each couple trying to win. This process shows the use of force and violence. Finally, we have the Aftermath, which shows growing of grudges among the spouses opening room to set the rules for divorce. The conflict theory explanation reflects divorce in families because divorce comes from conflicts that conflict theory explains in stages.

Conclusion
In conclusion, divorce leads to domestic instability and dysfunction. It makes children undergo stressful life while coping with it. Decisions to divorce must consider the interests of children and their development. If situation forces for it, continued and full support to children must be observed to make children grow normally. Whether valid or wrong reason to divorce, the decision needs to get taken as a last resort. Society should, therefore, reorganize its social functionality to eliminate separation among its members.