Dark Matter

Introduction
Dark matter is a composition of elements in the universe which are preserved in the form of primordial fluctuations in cosmological density. The existence of dark matter is associated with the formation of supersymmetry prediction of new families of particles which interact weakly with ordinary matter. The growth of dark matter is recorded to have started early that resulted in the formation of galaxies. Dark matter contributed to the provision of gravitational potential in which stable structure in the universe was formed. Dark matter enhanced the existence of galaxies, groups, as well as clusters. The existence of combining forces referred to as the dark energy combined different structures and expanded the space between bound particles that formed structures such as the Local Group of galaxies.

Discussion
Dark matter determines our existence as well as the future combination of elements. According to dark matter theory, a cosmic inflation has become the basis for the standard model of big bang cosmology called Lambda cold dark matter or Lambda-CDM (?CDM) (Colloquium on the Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation, 1998). Lambda-CDM is concerned with the formation and existence of cosmic microwave structure data as well as other cosmic rays which include; the distribution of galaxies, high concentration in abundance of hydrogen gas including deuterium, helium, as well as lithium. Dark matter as one of the cosmological density and occupies about 23% of cosmic density. It has the potential of having the dark energy of about that occupies 72%. The baryonic matter occupies up to only about 4.6% while the visible baryons occupy about 0.5% of the cosmic density (Colloquium on the Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation, 1998).

The Existence of Dark Matter
Initially, the infant universe was characterized by extremely hot, dense, homogeneous mixture of photons and matter. The composition of the universe was tightly coupled together as plasma. The initial characteristics and conditions of this early form of universe plasma are thought to be established long time ago during a period of rapid noncontrolled expansion referred to as inflation. The rapid expansions were contributed by high-density fluctuations within the primordial plasma (International Symposium on Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, He, & Ng, 2003). The effects were catalyzed by quantum fluctuations within the field of tightly held plasma material which drove the inflation. The high amplitude of the primordial gravitational potential that fluctuated uniformly on all spatial scales led to the formation of small perturbations as new forms of energy.

The small perturbations usually propagate via the plasma collision in the form of a sound wave. It produces under as well as overdensities in the plasma combined with a simultaneous change in density of matter and speed of radiation that influences fluctuation in pressure (International Symposium on Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, He, & Ng, 2003). However, CDM does not contribute towards sharing pressure induced during the oscillations. It usually acts upon as gravitational forces that either enhances or negates the acoustic patterns of the photons and baryons. The continuous pressure exerted results to initialization of physical conditions that contributes to expansion and rapid cooling of plasma (International Symposium on Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, He, & Ng, 2003). During the high pressure, the conditions reach a point where electrons, as well as baryons, are capable of gaining stability and recombining. As a result, the state leads to the formation of atoms, commonly in the form of neutral hydrogen. In the process photons finally, decouple from the baryons a condition that leads to the plasma becoming neutral. The formed perturbations cease from propagating as acoustic waves. The preserved and existing density pattern becomes cool and frozen. The cooled and frozen snapshot of the various density fluctuations get preserved within the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies others get embedded as an imprint of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) observable (International Symposium on Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, He, & Ng, 2003).

The resulting recombination is one associated with the production of large neutral universe characterized by unobservable fields of the electromagnetic spectrum. The period in which the named reactions occur is referred to as the era of dark ages. During the era, some reactions that occur includes CDM beginning gravitational collapse, especially in the overdense regions. Baryonic matter transforms to some gravitational forces that lead to collapsing of the CDM halos and influences the beginning of Cosmic Dawn (International Symposium on Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, He, & Ng, 2003). The radiations begin with the formation of initial radiation sources such as stars. Produced objects give a lot of radiation that causes other objects to re-ionize through the intergalactic medium. Most of the structures formed to continue to grow to merge other matters under the influence of gravitational pull. The result of the forming materials is a vast cosmic web of dark matter density. The radiating particles cause availability of abundant luminous galaxies that traces the statistics of different underlying matter density. Most of the assembled objects include clusters of galaxies that form the largest bound objects. The reorganization of dark matter results into galaxies that retain the BAO correlation length during the process of formation of CMB energy.With the increase in the dark matter, the universe continues to expand influencing the accumulation of the negative pressure which is associated with the cosmological constant. The constant is in the form of dark matter or dark energy in?CDM (International Symposium on Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, He, & Ng, 2003). The matter usually increases and dominates over opposing gravitational forces leading to the expansion of the universe.

Types of Dark Matter
The composition of the universe is usually dominated by the cosmic density of both dark energy and dark matter. What the most common physical nature of dark matter remains is yet to be discovered. There are two popular families of dark matter that try to explain about the dark matter particle. They include lightest supersymmetric partner particle also referred to as super-symmetric weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP). A WIMP is one of the weakly interacting dark matter components (Colloquium on the Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation, 1998). The basic idea behind WIMP particles is that billions of these black matter particles pass human hand within a second. They also pass through the Earth and everything on it. However, WIMPs interact weakly with other particles as well as ordinary matter. Due to their weak interactive reaction, they almost create their impacts entirely unnoticed.

It is a neutrino and is invisible while passing through a typical elementary particle detector. However, through some other properties of the other dark matter particles produced in association with the WIMP, it is possible to recognize their events and select them for analysis. Some of the most specific analysis has been done in models of supersymmetry.

The other particle is the cosmological axion. WIMPs and axions are the most common dark matter particles. Super-symmetry is among the standard models of particles that constitute energy that allows control of vacuum energy as well as used for renormalizing gravitational interactions. It plays a role that allows gravity to be combined with both the weak electronic components as well as strong interactions Super-symmetry dark matter makes it easy and possible for a grand unification of the weak electron materials and brings strong interactions that naturally explain the scaling of smaller particles in the universe. The forces of generated from the gravity lead to the grand unification of Planck scales that leads to solving the gauge hierarchy problem. The establishment of a connection between supersymmetry dark matters breaking with weak-electro symmetry leads to increase in mass that forms a range of about 100 to 1000 GeV (Colloquium on the Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation, 1998). The state leads to the formation of WIMP cosmological density that maintains balances in the universe. Many other particles including Axion have been indicated as possible dark matter candidates that also follow the principles of supersymmetry (Colloquium on the Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation, 1998).

Dark matter refers to a term that explains objects available in the universe in the form of the missing mass. It is a standard cosmological event of big bang model. Dark matter interacts with normal matter through the gravity. However, dark matter neither absorbs nor emits radiation and thus making it impossible to be seen. According to big bang cosmologists, they explain that about 25% of the universe is composed of dark matter. The major elements consist of non-standard particles which include neutrinos, axions also known as weakly interacting massive particles WIMPs. About 70% of the known universe is composed of models made up of more obscure dark energy components. The entire composition leaves a 5% of the universe composed of ordinary matter.

Dark Matter (DAMA) Experiment

A remarkable experiment referred to as Dark Matter (DAMA) is well known for using three styles of detectors to facilitate discovering of wimps. The experiment is designed in an exactly similar manner like experiments used in detecting and in the study neutrinos (Cerulli, et. al., 2017). However, DAMA is designed to look for a specific reaction. DAMA is designed to find the energy generated as a result of an interaction with a particular element at a particular angle.

The DAMA experiment has three phases which include processes, having two research and development (R&D) setups as well as one actual experiment that considers the results of the R&D. The basic idea behind DAMA experiment is that since the galaxy rotates at high speed of 232 km/s, the rotation enhances sweeping via the residual CDM material. The study involving the reaction of particles ensures the high possibility of using experiment illustrations to detect the WIMP contents of CDM possibly. The phases are as explained below.

Phase one:
The first phase uses Adhesive silicone CaF4 which is designed to look for a2? decay. The experiment is designed in that format to eliminate known leptons. The phase 1 experiment is set with the intention of determining signs of WIMP detection (Cerulli, et. al., 2017). When the expected results are successful, the second phase is designed as follows

Phase two:
The second phase makes use of isotope of xenon 129Xe; it is used to since it has a high sensitivity that detects R&D. Its superiority allows identifying of three WIMP particles which include photinos, higgsinos, and Majorana Neutrinos (Cerulli, et. al., 2017). After successful results are obtained through detection, the session opens for phase three which involves the actual experiment.

Phase three:
LIBRA – Large Sodium Iodine Bulk for Rare processes

Sodium Iodine (NaI) detectors experiment is set up after the two R&D phases. The results obtained should reveal that the experiment determines the presence of particles that clarify characteristics that qualify particles to be WIMP’s (Cerulli, et. al., 2017).

The DAMA project is a project carried to certainly determine the existence of some particles that resemble the requirements of wimps. The results obtained from DAMA experiment are revealed characteristics of particles such as the mirror symmetry which is a theory of particle physics. As indicated from researchers it is true that every particle of matter has a mirror particle. The experiment reveals that mirror matter particles consist of the sole of CDM (Cerulli, et. al., 2017).

LUX Experiment
The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) is a dark matter experiment, which is designed to operate underground beneath a mile of rock. It is located in Sanford Underground Research Facility in the Black Hills of South Dakota (Chapman, et al., 2013). The LUX experiment is designed to look for black matter referred to as weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). WIMP is considered as the leading theoretical candidate that consists of dark matter particle. The LUX detectors are composed of a third of a ton composed of cooled liquid xenon. It is usually surrounded by powerful sensors which are designed basically for detecting minute and a tiny flash of light (Chapman, et al., 2013). They also detect the electrical charges emitted incase a WIMP particle collides with a xenon atom within the reaction chamber or tank. The detectors are specifically located at Sanford Lab underground one mile of rock. It is usually found inside a 72,000-gallon tank, with a high-purity water tank. The configuration and setup help in shielding it from dangerous cosmic rays as well as effects of other radiation that can easily interfere with a dark matter signals. The scientist makes use of calibration techniques using neutrons as stand-ins for managing and controlling WIMPs particles (Chapman, et al., 2013). The effect is achieved through firing a beam of neutrons in the detectors. By achieving that scientists gain capability of carefully quantifying the process in which LUX detectors responds to the signals produced from a WIMP collision (Chapman, et al., 2013). Other forms of calibration techniques applied include injecting radioactive gasses inside the detecting chamber to help in distinguishing between signals produced during ambient radioactivity as well as potential dark matter signal.

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Discussion question

Introduction
In various scientific inquiries, our aim is always to establish the causes of something. For example, we might want to establish the true causes of autism or causes of cancer or how the drug enables a patient to feel better and less pain. Also, we can be interested in knowing which cultural practices result in environmental problems in many other aspects. In such instances, we are testing the causal models. On the other hand, scientific studies also aim to establish the correlations between variables. Correlations aim at finding out the associations of variables. Variables are aspects that researchers measure which may differ from one observation to another, for example, behavior, weight, height, lifespan, income, grade-point average and fat intake. With the variables, we can assign a value to represent the variables.

Causation and correlation

We frequently experience instances of misuse between causation and correlation. For example in a British newspaper, it provides reports from a group of teenagers who were to give information about their behaviors. The survey aimed to establish if the parents of these teenagers were smokers. As a fact, the newspaper reported that children were exhibiting delinquent behaviors had parents who smoke. The results of this study seem to indicate correlations between two variables. However the headline of this printed newspaper is entitled, “”Parental smoking causes children to misbehave” Criticalthinking.org.uk, 2006). The professor in charge of the investigation mentions that cigarettes pack should have a warning b about the prominent health warnings and various social issues. However, this is a problematic assumption. First, the correlations there might be a reverse in that delinquent children make their parents have stress making them smoke.

Another example of a correlation that is assumed to be a cause is that children with bigger feet can better spell than those with smaller feet. The odd results of this study’s explanation are that those children with bigger feet are older and not quite related to being better in spelling. As children grow they develop big feet (Paulo, 2010).

Another example is that the countries in the south have high rates of divorces and lower rates of death. There is also the example that nations adding fluoride to their water experience a high level of cancer unlike those which do not. Though there are studies that have come to such findings, these responses would make more sense if the researchers would acknowledge the differences between causation and correlations (Murch, et al., 2004).

The 1998 study kindles the opposition to vaccine firestorm that provides suggestions that autism is as a result of vaccines have no support from the General Medical Council. The participants were biased, and it made the researcher commit various ethical breaches in his work. Andrew Wakefield‘s research paper no longer exists. The Researcher analyzed the health of 12 children showing signs of colon inflammation and autism shortly after receiving the MMR vaccinations (Wakefield, et al., 1998). T

hough this study raises alarms about autism and vaccine, a closer examination of this paper indicate a range of warning signs.. The researchers in their conclusion state flatly that, we did not find a close association between mumps, measles, and the syndrome and rubella vaccine. The researcher mentions that they have managed to identify that chronic enterocolitis among children could relate to neuropsychiatric dysfunction. Additionally, they state that the onset of symptoms was after, rubella, mumps and measles immunization. And that further examination should be done in studying the symptoms and its possible relation to the vaccine). This is a tame language and only studying 12 participants makes the study to lack credibility and validity (Stehr-Green, Tull, & Simpson, 2003). Up to date, no study has established the connection between autism and MMR shots. The evidence of a-pick-and-choose recruitment method is bias leading to a discredit of its conclusion (DeStefano, 2007).

Correlation provides a statistical measure that describes the direction and size of the relationship between one or two variables. However, the correlation between variables does not automatically mean a change in one of the variables as being the reason for the change in other variables values. Causation, however, means that one event leads to the occurrence of another event which means that there is a causal relationship in two variables (The Lancet, 2010). For example, smoking has a correlation to alcoholism, but it is not the main cause of alcoholism. Rather smoking causes a higher risk of lung cancer development.

Therefore incorrectly linking causation and correlation principles will lead to posthoc reasoning in which the incorrect assumptions generations are the incorrect links of two effects. The principles of causation and correlations are crucial to all researchers and scientists. It is also important for other not -scientists who study marketing, media and politics. Knowing these principles helps to promote honest evaluation and greater understanding to individuals at all ages (Science Daily, 2013).